What you can do with protected varieties

ProtectionBrown Bag (Save Back Seed)ResaleProtection Term
No Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA)*No limit on how much seed a grower can save and sellSeed sold commercially must be sold by variety nameNone
PVPA and Title V^ Grower may save enough to plant on farm but no saved seed can be soldĀ No resale allowed unless intended use on own farm plans changed and then only by variety and certified seed20 years
PVPA but no Title VGrower may save enough to plant on farm 20 years
PatentGrower cannot save seed for any planting or commercial purposesN/A20 years
Seed Sales Agreement$Typically no save back seedTypically no resale Specified in agreement. Typically for one-time use of seed purchased
Notes:
* PVPA created a voluntary program to provide patent-like rights to developers, breeders and owners of plant varieties to encourage development of new varieties, recover research costs and allow 20-year protection.
^ Title V was an amendment to the Federal Seed Act, with the same protections as PVPA except the variety must be sold as a class of certified seed and by variety name.
$ Seed Sales Agreement overrides all other protections.